INSECTS why are insects so important
insects are of enormous importance to the function of natural ecosystems and to the lives of humans.They are the most abundant macroscopic organisms in most terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Surprisingly, however,theyare almost completely absend from the sea,where they are largely replaced by crustaceans In many ecosystems,insects are the dominant grazers-locust and harvester termites perhaps the best known examples-and play a crucial role in the decomposition of plant and animal wastes. Predatory of parasitic insects control the density and population structures of many other life forms.Smallere organisms may fail
prey to dragonflies,robber flies,predatory bugs, ladybirds and like larger life-forms.Such as birds and mammals,may
be infected by deseases carried by tsese flies,mosquitoes and other insects Parasitic insects(parasitoids)
infect the larvae of other insect species,including importantpest species, and may thus play a valuable rule in regulating
pest populations Insects are also primairy plant pollinators, and are instrumnentalthus in the completion of the life cycle of many
species of plants, they also help to direct the evolution of flowers since flowers complete with one another to attrackt pollinators
BABOON SPIDER.Baboon spiders or tarantulas, as they are known outside Africa, are the giants of the spider world. The last two leg segments resemble the finger of a baboon hence, the common name, baboon spiders
Golden Orb Web Spider Webs of steel
Baboon SPIders or Tarrantula lees verder >>>
The baboon spiders are large, with a body size varying from 13-90 mm. They are very hairy and their colour varies between hues of brown, grey, yellow to black. The carapace is frequently decorated with radiating bands while the abdomen has variegated markings. they are easily recognized by their large size, strong, hairy bodies, and the thick pad of hair present ventrally on the last two leg segments. Some theraphosids are known to deliver painful bites. Harpactira lightfooti, a baboon spider known from Cape Town and the Paarl region in South Africa are fairly aggressive and people sometimes get bitten. They produce a neurotoxic venom. Bites in humans results in a burning pain at the bite site. The patients after about two hours start to vomit; they show marked signs of shock, become pale and
have difficulty walking. Bites are however, never fatal.>>>> BABOON SPIDER
The Golden Orb Web Spider is not the largest spider, but makes the largest and strongest web. It gets its name from the golden colour of its silk.The web can run from the top of a tree 6m high and up to 2m wide. Unlike other spider webs, the Golden Orb Web Spider’s web is not dismantled often and can last several years
GOLDEN ORB SPIDER lees verder >>>
The golden orb spider is a very common spider in Marloth Park, Designed to catch large flying insects, the web is slightly angled. It is not a perfect wheel and is usually off-centre. To make its web, the spider releases a thin thread into the wind. When it catches on something, the spider walks along it trailing a stronger non-sticky thread. It repeats the process in the centre of the line to form a strong Y-frame. Around this, it spins the rest of the web out of sticky capture silk.
The silk is so strong that it can trap small birds, which the spider doesn’t eat. These trapped creatures often destroy the web by thrashing around. To avoid such damage, the spider often leaves a line of insect husks on its web (like the safety strip across glass doors!); or builds smaller barrier webs around the main web.>>>>> Golden orb en ook hier golden orb
Widow spiders black and brown.
Button spider is a common name used in southern Africa to refer to local … The brown button spiders are lighter in color than the black button spiders
Black Widow the only deadly spider in South Africa ,
While many African spiders are generally harmless, there are a few aggressive, venomous, massive, and downright , There are spiders that crave human blood; spiders that could kill a child with one bite; and spiders that are large, hairy and aggressive. But spiders are generally shy,they very rarely bite human beings
Brown Widow spider L. geometricus is slightly smaller and generally lighter in color than the black widow species; the color can range from tan to dark brown to black, with shades of grey also possible.
Black widow read more>>>
A particularly venomous species, the button spider injects a neurtoxic venom into its victims. You may be more familiar with the term, “Widow spider” given the fact that the larger female kills her mate once she’s had her way with him. Coloring varies from cream to black and many have red markings on their bodies. A bite from a female button spider (especially the black ones) has the capacity to kill a child and seriously harm an adult. If bitten, the victim will be in a lot of intense pain, experience elevated blood pressure, muscle cramps and weakness in the legs. There are 6 species of button spider in Sub-Saharan Africa, from Madagascar to the Cape Verde Islands.. zwarte weduwe >>>>>>>>> of hier black widow >>>>>>>>>>> of hier zwarte weduwe>>>>>>>>>>>
Brown widowread more>>>
has a prominent hourglass-shaped marking on the underside of the abdomen; the brown widow’s hourglass, however, is usually a vivid orange or a yellowish color. Unlike the black widow, L. geometricus
has a black-and-white geometric pattern on the dorsal side of its abdomen. Although the Latin name comes from this pattern, a spider’s coloring can and does darken over time and the pattern may become obscured. Also, they have stripes on their legs. Brown widows are often preyed on by mud daubers and sometimes by digger wasps.
Brown widows can be located by finding their egg sacs, which are easily identifiable. They resemble a sandspur, having pointed projections all over
and they are sometimes described as “tufted”, “fluffy”, or “spiky” in appearance. Eggs hatch in approximately 20 days. Female brown widows “lay about 120-150 eggs per sac and can make 20 egg sacs over a lifetime.”
Like all Latrodectus species, L. geometricus has a neurotoxic venom that, drop for drop, is as toxic as the black widow’s. However, brown widow bites are usually not very dangerous; usually much less dangerous than the black widow’s. The effects of the toxin are usually confined to the bite area and surrounding tissue, unlike the black widow’s. Mere toxicity of the venom is not the only factor in dangerousness. Brown widow bites are minor compared to black widow bites because they cannot deliver the same amount of venom as the black widow. The of L. geometricus venom has been measured in mice as 0.43 mg/kg., and separately again as 0.43 mg/kg (with a confidence interval of 0.31-0.53).
Similar widows include the L. rhodesiensis, a brown-colored relative of L. geometricus which is native to Zimbabwe. Both species are collectively known as brown button spidersthroughout southern Africa. Brown button spiders are known to have a lifespan of about two years.
VIOLIN SPIDER (Loxosceles)
The Violin Spider (known as the Brown Recluse in the US) may be small in size (less than an inch ) but it packs a real venomous punch. Their bite may seem insignificant at first, but the highly cytotoxic venom starts to break down the victims skin tissue, causing a nasty, painful, blistering sore. The danger of a secondary infection is high if left untreated. Violin spiders are usually brown-ish, red in color, and they have three pairs of eyes. They hunt their prey at night and sleep in makeshift webs during the day, usually under logs, rocks or in caves. The 15 species of Violin spiders can be found throughout Africa although some are local. They are in fact a shy creature and many spider bites are falsely attributed to them.
Sac Spider (Cheiracanthium)
Sac spiders are thought to bite more humans than any other spider. Their venom contains a cytotoxin, which means it kills cells and will lead to tissue breakdown and blistering at the bite site. Sac spiders are quite pale, the most common house species are pale greenish, tan or straw colored. They have distinctive long front legs that face forward and wave about when on the hunt. Sac spiders actively hunt at night and weave together a protective tube of silk to rest in during the day. Sac spiders are very useful to farmers because they control pests. There are many species of Sac spider in Africa, at least 3 species have been identified in Egyptian cotton fields alone.
Jumping Spider (Evarcha culicivora)
SAC Spider more>>>
Invalid Displayed Gallery
Know what a yellow sac spider is. Here are some key characteristics.
• Physical features: With an orange-brown stripe on top of the abdomen, 1/4″ to 3/8” (6.3 to 9.5 mm) long
• Venomous: Yes
• Lives in: primarily in the Pacific Northwest United States and Southwestern Canada
• Eats: These spiders are nocturnal and hunt actively during the night. They prey on spiders (sometimes spiders larger than themselves), insects and their own eggs.
1 – Look at the legs. The first pair of legs is longer than the 4th pair of legs
2 – Observe the eyes. The 8 eyes of the yellow sac spider are similar in size and they are arranged in 2 horizontal rows.
3 – Examine the areas in your home where the wall meets the ceiling. These spiders often make their sacs in the juncture of a walland ceiling and hide in the sac during the daytime. If you disturb the sac, the spider will drop to the floor.
4 – Notice their feet, which are black (they are actually covered with tiny black hairs). If your walls and ceilings are light in color, you will easily notice the black feet.
Recognizing Yellow Sac Spider Habitats
This spider creates a sac instead of a web. It prefers to live and hunt outdoors, but when the weather starts turning colder, it move indoors, where it will construct its sac in a corner, usually near the ceiling.
1 – Look for yellow sac spiders in other places like: •Garden sheds
•Behind picture frames
Treating a Bite
The fangs of yellow sac spiders are powerful and can penetrate human skin. The mild venom produces neurotoxic effects and the bite itself can be quite painful.
1 – Notice if you or the person bitten experiences redness, itching and swelling at the bite area. Remember that all these symptoms disappear within 72 hours though, so quick identification is important.
2 – Once you’ve identified the bite to be from a yellow sac spider, call emergency services as soon as possible
•Because yellow sac spiders hunt for their prey at night, it is a good idea to keep your bed away from walls to lessen the likelihood of getting bitten while you sleep.
•Most people get bitten by yellow sac spiders when they are gardening or doing other kinds of outdoor activities.
•You can limit the number of yellow sac spiders that get into your home by installing tight fitting screens on your doors and windows. It also helps to seal all gaps, cracks and crevices where the spider might gain entry.
•Yellow sac spiders typically live for one to three years, and are preyed on by spider wasps, birds and lizards.
•The symptoms from a bite of a yellow sac spider mimic the symptoms from a bite of a brown recluse spider. If at all possible, capture the spider that bit you so that it can be positively identified. That way, you can get the appropriate medical attention
Jumping Spider (Evarcha culicivora) Jumping spiders stalk their prey rather than weaving a web. Evarcha culicivora is a jumping spider found in Kenya and Uganda. This jumping spider apparently has such an affinity for human blood, it shows a strong preference for female mosquitoes who are filled with the stuff. While it doesn’t have the mouth tools necessary to jump on humans and feast directly, the idea of a vampire spider who likes the taste of human blood, is scary enough to make it on this list.
RAIN and SUN SPIDERS There is often confusion between the rain and sun spiders one is a real spider and not the other. They have a fearsome appearance and when found around the house call with the result to “Doom” and shouting “Kill!” They fill key positions in the bush prey insects are not the people and therefore must be allowed their good work. Hopefully, the following articles will lead to a better understanding of them and their place in the environment.
RAIN SPIDERS Rain Spider (Huntsman Spider)
The Rain spider is brown, enormous and by default somewhat terrifying. It could give you a heart attack if you’re scared of spiders, but technically they’re quite harmless.
Sunspiders Solifugae . camel spider; Solifugae; Solpugida; sun scorpion; sun spider; wind scorpion[Engels alternatieve namen]; haarskeerders, baardskeerders, rooimanne, jag spinnekoppe (‘jacht spiders’), cadeau-kankers (GIF kankers), vetvreters (vet eters) [Afrikaans]
DE Rain SPIDER lees verder >>>
Their legs can span more than 3 inches and are hairy to boot. Their bodies are smooth and plump. While they can bite, their venom is relatively weak and a human will recover in a matter of days. The females will get very aggressive while defending their eggs. Rain Spiders hunt at night and sleep during the day. They’re called Rain Spiders in Southern Africa because they tend to be more active just before and after it rains. In South Africa it’s very common to have these spiders move into your home just before the summer rains.. more Rainspider >>>>>>
Sunspider (order Solifugae), formerly Solpugida also spelled sun spider, also called sun scorpion,wind scorpion, or camel spider, sunspider any of more than 1,000 species of the arthropod class Arachnida whose common name refers to their habitation of hot dry regions as well as to their typically golden colour. They are also called wind scorpions because of their swiftness, camel spiders because of their humped heads, and solpugids because of the former scientific name. Their hairiness and rounded opisthosoma (abdomen) are spiderlike, while the front appendages somewhat resemble those of a scorpion. Body length is 10 to 50 mm (0.4 to 2 inches). Sunspiders generally are nocturnal..
Sunspiders are extremely voracious, and the largest forms can kill small vertebrates. The chelicerae (first pair of appendages) are large toothed, jawlike pincers, and the leglike pedipalps (second pair of appendages) have suctorial tips for seizing prey. Unique racket-shaped organs (malleoli) on the hindmost legs may be sensory.Sunspiders are common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including in Africa and southeastward to India, in Indonesia (especially the Celebes), and in parts of the New World
THE REAL SPIDERS
DISTRIBUTION: Spiders occur throughout the world and for the moment there are already about 50,000 known species and described. They live in cold, temperate and tropical areas and really only in seas from them, the animals resembling spiders there are usually crab or crustaceans, spiders which incidentally have some similarities with it. The formats can spin quite different. There are millimeters small, with the naked eye hardly identify small species and there are large heavy spin, with a wingspan (leg to leg) sometimes more than 30cm. In appearance can spin quite different but the basic construction of spin is always the same, only the “effect” thereof may vary greatly. Some seem bare and smooth, and some are hairy, some species are plain and unobtrusive, others have bright, mostly warning colors, others seem to have spines or other projections. Many spiders have adapted over time to their environment and therefore are practically not. For example, there are spiders that have the color and shape of certain flowers, and therefore always in the life of flowers. Spiders live very often a hidden life, and it is known that on average, each square meter at least 10-12 spiders live. lees meer en ook hier en de slide show en hier ALLE SPINNEN
Treatment spiderbyte read more>>>
Treatment How a person will be affected by a spider bite depends on a number of factors, including the species of spiders, the age and health of the person is bitten, where the bite is created (extremities are generally less hazardous than closer to the heart and the brains), and how sensitive the bite to the victim Like snakes poison spiders can be divided into two types. Neurotoxic poison that affects the central nervous system, and cytotoxic poison that affects the tissue around the bite. Black and brown button spiders inject neurotoxic poison but the most toxic of the two, the black button. There are no deaths registered in recent history – but young, old, and sick people are most at risk, especially without treatment. There is the possibility that the victim will die of respiratory failure, heart failure or both. Symptoms can be distinguished among other things as a painful bite area, painful muscle spasms, a warped, wet and sweaty face with swollen eyelids, lips and inflamed jaw muscles contracted. Symptoms of brown widow bites are usually less severe and more restricted to the bite site. If someone is bitten person you rest and keep warm. They should go to the hospital where antivenom will be given if the bite is severe. They will then usually respond within an hour, and they should remain in the hospital for observation until doctors are assured that there was no allergic reaction to the antivenom occurs. If the bite is not serious, they will probably receive intravenous calcium gluconate to relieve cramps and muscle aches.
MALARIA read more>>>
is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium that belongs to the Sporozoa. The parasite is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Approximately one million people die each year from malaria, the vast majority in Africa and the vast majority of children younger than 5. 20% of child deaths in Africa can be attributed to malaria. Pregnant women are at high risk of dying due to complications from malaria, but also the risk of spontaneous abortion or premature birth. There is also the risk of anemia in women and as a result, babies with a low birth weight.
Until about 1920 malaria was incidentally also still endemic in the Netherlands. Just after the Second World War in the Netherlands were about 10,000 cases of malaria each year. This high number can be explained partly by stopping the ‘kininisatie’ during the German occupation and by reduced drainage of wetlands by fuel poverty.  It was only in 1959 ‘indigenous’ malaria was last detected in the Netherlands, and was until 1970 the Netherlands as one of the last countries in Europe, the designation ‘malaria free‘ by the World Health Organization