THE SNAKES IN MARLOTH PARK AND LIONSPRUIT ……..
Snakes are valuable for our environment, for the following reasons: They control the number of rodents and bats in the bush. They also eat frogs, birds, lizards, geckos, chameleons, bird eggs, insects and fish as part of the food chain and are food for the Brown Snake Eagle, another snake-eating birds, mongoose, hyena and other snakes. We have some beautiful, innocent and slightly poisonous snakes (their poison is of no concern to humans) in the bush around us, but unfortunately sometimes they come looking for in it in our homes they look for food or shelter. out of fear, many people will want to kill them because they do not know whether it is a dangerous snake or not. This page is to help to get to know our harmless snakes, so we do them no harm but ensure that they continue to live in the wild and are part of the food chain as nature intended. It is also important to know that there are also poisonous snakes and how to react when you see one. For all snakes, please call the Snake Handlers, see the the phone numbers to help you.. The 18 most common snakes found in Marloth Park and Lionspruit
- Spotted bush snake
- Green water snake
- Brown house snake
- Eastern Tiger Snake
- Striped belly sand snake
- Olive grass snake
- Red-lipped herald
- Common egg eater
- Marbled tree snake
- Black-headed centipede eater
- Snouted night adder
- Common night adder
NOT POISEND: Philothamnus semivariegatus
- Common egg eater
- Mozambique spitting cobra
- Black mamba
- Twig snake
- Puff adder
, commonly known as the spotted bush snake
, is a species of non-venomous colubrid snake, endemic to Africa:
Green water snake Philothamnus hoplogaster (Green water snake, South eastern green snake) Groenwaterslang; Suidoostelike groenslang [Afrikaans]; Umhlwazi [Xhosa
Spotted bushsnake read more>>>
Spotted bush snakes are mostly found in trees in bush and forest areas, where they hunt lizards and treefrogs. They are excellent climbers and swimmers, have very good eyesight, and are highly alert snakes. They are not territorial, and will roam great distances in search for food. Spotted bush snakes are very common and completely harmless. They are well camouflaged, naturally very nervous, and quick to escape from any potential threat. As such, suburban sightings are rare.. >>>>Spotted bush snake
green water snake read more >>>
The Green water snake can be identified by its round pupils, a white or yellow underside, a particularly good swimming and tree climbing ability and a diurnal lifestyle. It grows to an average length of 60 cm and a maximum length of 1 meter.
Distribution and habitat
Found throughout Zimbabwe, central and southern Mozambique, eastern South Africa and the Eastern Cape coast. It is found in a variety of habitats but is particularly common in moist savanna.
Eats frogs, fish, lizards and possibly grasshoppers.
.>>>>green water snake
Lamprophis capensis (Brown house snake, Common house snake) Bruinhuisslang, Gewone huisslang [Afrikaans]; Umzingandlu [Zulu]; Inkwakhwa [Xhosa]
BROWN HOUSE SNAKE lees verder >>>
Cape House Snakes are usually dark brown on top but the colour varies greatly, from almost black through brown to olive green. The stripes that stretch from the rostral scale through the eye to the back of the head are very strong, thick and bold. Often this species may have a lateral stripe running down the flanks, this often resembles the links of a chain, they sometimes too have lateral stripes running along either side of the spine, linking lines between the lateral striping is not uncommon. These body markings tend to be a paler brown/cream in colour on top of the often dark, chocolate-brown base tones, these markings normally fade after 2/3’s of the body until only the base colour remains but there are exceptions to the rule. Individuals without pattern are often found in the wild, these individuals have the head markings but no markings on top of an often pale-brown body colour. Like all House Snakes, Boaedon capensis is very irrdescent, their scales often shining with an oily sheen in certain lights. This is a sexually dimorphic species, females growing substantially larger than males, sometimes reaching up to 4 feet (120 cm) males smaller often only reaching 2–2.5 ft (61–76 cm).
Behaviour & Diet
In the wild, this species is known to frequent human habitations, feeding on the rodents that gather there. It is common misconception that South African people introduce these snakes to their home to eat rodents, this happens extremely rarely. Nocturnal by nature this species is known to eat entire nests of mice in one sitting. In the wild this species breeds once or twice per year.
>>>>BROWN HOUSE SNAKE
Python natalensis (South African rock python, Natal rock python) Not venomous but has bad bite Suider-Afrikaanse luislang[Afrikaans]; inHlwathi, uMonya, imFundamo [Zulu]; iNamba, iFoli, uGqoloma [Xhosa];inHlathu [Ndebele]; Nhlarhu [Tsonga];Hlware [Sotho/ Tswana]; Tharu [Venda];Shatu [Shona]
CATEGORIE LITTLE POISEN, NO CONSEQUENSES FOR HUMAN: Eastern Tiger Snake (Telescopus semiannulatus semiannulatus) Oostlelike tierslang [Afrikaans] The Eastern Tiger snake can be identified by the following features and behaviors; a head which is distinct from the body, large eyes (with vertical pupils), an orange-yellow colouration, its highly aggressive nature when threatened, between 20 and 50 dark blotches down its length and its strictly nocturnal lifestyle. This snake has an average length of 80 cm but can reach a length of 1 meter. can be confused with a koral snake,
PYTHON read more>>>
Africa’s largest snake and one of the six largest snake species in the world (along with the green anaconda, reticulated python, Burmese python, Indian python, andamethystine python), specimens may approach or exceed 6 m (20 ft). The southern subspecies is generally smaller than its northern relative. The snake is found in a variety of habitats, from forests to near deserts, although usually near sources of water. The African rock python kills its prey by constriction and often eats animals up to the size of antelope, occasionally even crocodiles. The snake reproduces by egg-laying. Unlike most snakes, the female protects her nest and sometimes even her hatchlings.
The snake is widely feared, though it very rarely kills humans. Although the snake is not endangered, it does face threats from habitat reduction and hunting.
TIGER SNAKE lees verder >>>
The Eastern Tiger snake can be identified by the following features and behaviors; a head which is distinct from the body, large eyes (with vertical pupils), an orange-yellow colouration, its highly aggressive nature when threatened, between 20 and 50 dark blotches down its length and its strictly nocturnal lifestyle. This snake has an average length of 80 cm but can reach a length of 1 meter.
Distribution and habitat
Found in the following areas; Southern and Central Mozambique, Zimbabwe, most of Botswana and North Eastern Namibia. Its favoured habitats include lowland forest and moist and arid savanna.
Feeds on lizards (particularly geckos), fledgling birds, bats and small rodents (e.g. mice).
Predators, parasites and disease
Fed on by other snakes.
Oviparous (egg laying), lays between 3 and 20 eggs in summer.
Uncertain but this snakes lifespan is likely to be 10 years or more.
The venom of this snake is very weak and has little or no effect on man
More TIGER SNAKE>>>>>>
Striped belly sand snake Western Stripe-bellied Sand Snake [Psammophis subtaeniatus](Afr) WESTELIKE GESTREEPTE SANDSLANG (Xho) UMHLWAZI Deze slang is een lange slanke slang met een spitse kop en rond pupillen, meestal gestreept van nek tot staart, niet goed te zien deze foto.
Olive grass snake Psammophis mossambicus (Olive whip snake) Olyfsweepslang [Afrikaans] this snake can be fount south of Durban in the Natal, to north. north-Transvaal and the Limpopo proince. and all Swaziland,
Western Stripe-bellied Sand Snake lees verder >>>
This snake is a long slender snake with a pointed head and round pupils, usually striped from neck to tail, although you can’t really see the body in this photo.
This is a very common and extremely fast moving snake. It is diurnal (active in daytime) like most sand/whip snakes. If stumbled upon, this snake will slither off quickly and then freeze within the nearest bush or shrub and futher rely on camouflage. This snake is largely terrestrial. It has a lemony-yellow coloured belly. The adults can reach lenghts up to 1.4 meters long.
This snake can be found in the Northwest and Limpopo provinces and countries surrounding these areas. I favours arid savanna biomes. It is very common in the Limpopo valley as well as the Zambezi valley.
This snake poses no danger to man, although it is mildly venomous. It feeds on rodents, frogs, lizzards and small birds. This snake can easily be confused with the other sand/whip snakes of the Genus Psammophis. Sometimes confused with the striped skaapsteker.
Scale count at midbody would be in 17 rows with 155 to 181 ventral scales and 106 to 132 paired subcaudals. The anal shield is devided. foto van frankrijnders.com WESTERN STRIPE SAND SNAKE >>>>
Red-lipped herald Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia Rooilipslang [Afrikaans]; Phimpi [Ndebele] The Red Lipped Snake is a small snake with a broad, obvious head and a short tail. The scales are in 19 rows at midbody and are dull; the head is iridescent when the skin is freshly shed. The back is olive to green-black above. The head is iridescent blue-black in colour,
OLIVE-GRASS-SNAKE lees verder >>>
The Olive Grass Snake is a large, robust snake with a non-flattened snout and a long tail. The back is olive-brown (paler towards the tail), sometimes with black-edged scales, forming thin black lines or with scattered black flecks on the forebody. The belly is white-yellow.
The Olive Grass Snake occurs in the northern parts of the region, extending south along the Kwa-Zulu Natal coast and elsewhere to Kenya.
The female lays 10 – 30 eggs in dead leaves, etc., in midsummer. They hatch in about 65 days.
Its venom may cause nausea and pain.
It occasionally eats other snakes, even young black.
Common egg eater Dasypeltis scabra ( Rhombic egg-eater) Gewone eiervreter [Afrikaans]; Ralegonyane [Tswana] c wordean be identified by there pattern,
Rooilipslang read more>>>
The Red Lipped Snake is a small snake with a broad, obvious head and a short tail. The scales are in 19 rows at midbody and are dull; the head is iridescent when the skin is freshly shed. The back is olive to green-black above. The head is iridescent blue-black in colour.
The Red Lipped Snake occurs in the eastern half of the region, from South Western Cape to Zimbabwe and elsewhere to tropical Africa.
The female lays 6 – 19 eggs in leaf litter in early summer; these hatch in 61 – 64 days.
No toxic symptoms have been recorded in a bite by this species.
It feeds at night on amphibians.
Common egg eater lees verder >>>
The Rhombic Egg-Eater is a slender, solid snake with a small, rounded head. The tail is short; males have shorter tails. The back is slate-grey, light brown or olive-brown, with a median series of dark, squarish blotches flanked by narrow dark bars. Mouth lining is black.
The rhombic Egg-Eater is found throughout the subcontinent and elsewhere to to Sudan in the north and Gambia in the west.
It lays 6 – 25 eggs in summer; these take 80 – 90 days to hatch.
The Rhombic Egg-Eater feeds solely on eggs with ridges in the mouth assisting in swallowing. The shell is regurgitated in one piece after the contents have passed through the stomach.
>>>Common egg eater
Marbled tree snake Dipsadoboa aulica Marmerslang [Afrikaans] The Marbled tree snake can be identified by its large eyes (with vertical pupils), a head which is distinct from its body, a white tongue and its nocturnal lifestyle. It grows to an average length of 60 cm and a maximum length of 85 cm
Marbled tree snake read more>>>
>>> Marbled Tree snake
Distribution and habitat
Found in KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Swaziland, southeast Zimbabwe and southern and central Mozambique. Its favoured habitats are lowland forest and moist savanna.
Eats lizards (particularly geckos), frogs, toads and small rodents.
Predators, parasites and disease
Eaten by other snakes.
Oviparous (egg-laying), lays between 7and 9 eggs in summer.
Has been known to live for between 10 and 15 years.
Although venomous is not thought to be dangerous to man.
Black-headed centipede eater Aparallactus capensis ( Cape centipede-eater) Swartkop-honderdpootvreter [Afrikaans] De Black-headed duizendpoot eter Yellow or pale reddish brown dorsally, with or without a blackish vertebral line. Yellowish white ventrally. Neck and top of head black, with or without a yellowish crossbar behind the parietals. Sides of head yellowish, with the shields bordering the eye black. Adults may attain a total length of 33.5 cm (13 1⁄4 in), with a tail 7 cm (2 3⁄4 in) long.
centipede eater lees verder >>>
Portion of rostral visible from above ⅓ as long as its distance from the frontal. Frontal 1½ to 1⅔ as long as broad, much longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the parietals. Nasal entire, in contact with the preocular. One postocular. Seven upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye, fifth in contact with the parietal. Mental in contact with the anterior chin shields, which are as long as or a little longer than the posterior. Anterior chin shields in contact with three lower labials. Dorsal scales in 15 rows, smooth. Ventrals 138-166; anal plate entire; subcaudals 37-53, entire Adults may attain a total length of 33.5 cm (13 1⁄4
in), with a tail 7 cm (2 3⁄4
>>>> centipede eater
categorie VERY POISEND !!!!!!!!!:
Boomslang Dispholidus typus iNambezelu,iNyushu [Xhosa]; inDlondlo [Ndebele]; Logwere [Tswana]; Legwere [North Sotho]; Khangala [Venda]; Muroxwe[Venda]; Coracunda [Shona]
Boomslang lees verder >>>
The average adult boomslang is 100–160 cm (3¼–5¼ feet) in total length, but some exceed 183 cm (6 feet). The eyes are exceptionally large, and the head has a characteristic egg-like shape. Coloration is very variable. Males are light green with black or blue scale edges, but adult females may be brown. Weight varies from 175 to 510 g, with an average weight of 299.4 g.In this species, the head is distinct from the neck and the canthus rostralis is distinct. The pupils of the very large eyes are round. Boomslangs have excellent eyesight and often move their heads from side to side to get a better view of objects directly in front of them. The maxillary teeth are small anteriorly, seven or eight in number, followed by three very large, grooved fangs situated below each eye. The mandibular teeth are subequal. The body is slightly compressed. The dorsal scales are very narrow, oblique, strongly keeled, with apical pits, arranged in 19 or 21 rows. The tail is long, and the subcaudals are paired. Ventrals are 164–201; the anal plate is divided. Boomslangs are oviparous, and produce up to 30 eggs which are deposited in hollow tree trunks or rotting logs. The eggs have a relatively long (three months on average) incubation period. Male hatchlings are grey with blue speckles, and female hatchlings are a pale brown. They attain their adult coloration after several years. Hatchlings are approximately 20 cm in length and pose no threat to humans, but are dangerously venomous by the time they reach a length of about 45 cm and a girth as thick as an adult’s smallest finger.
Boomslangs are diurnal and almost exclusively arboreal. They are reclusive, and flee from anything too large to eat. Their diet includes chameleons and other arboreal lizards, frogs, and occasionally small mammals, birds, and eggs from nesting birds, all of which they swallow whole. During cool weather, they hibernate for moderate periods, often curling up inside the enclosed nests of birds such as weavers.
Many venomous members of the family Colubridae are harmless to humans because of small venom glands and inefficient fangs. However, the boomslang is a notable exception in that it has a highly potent venom, which it delivers through large fangs located in the back of the jaw. Boomslangs are able to open their jaws up to 170° when biting. The venom of the boomslang is primarily a hemotoxin; it disables the blood clotting process and the victim may well die as a result of internal and external bleeding. The venom has been observed to cause hemorrhage into tissues such as muscle and brain. Other signs and symptoms include headache, nausea, sleepiness, and mental disorders.
Because boomslang venom is slow-acting, symptoms may not become apparent until many hours after the bite. Although the absence of symptoms provides sufficient time for procuring antivenom, it can also provide victims with false reassurance, leading to them underestimating the seriousness of the bite. Snakes of any species may sometimes fail to inject venom when they bite (a so-called “dry bite”), so after a few hours without any noticeable effects, victims of boomslang bites may wrongly believe that their injury is not serious or life-threatening.
An adult boomslang has 1.6–8 mg of venom Its median lethal dose (LD50) in mice is 0.1 mg/kg(intravenously). 0.071 mg/kg(IV) has also been reported.
In 1957, the well-known herpetologist Karl Schmidt died after being bitten by a juvenile boomslang which he doubted could produce a fatal dose.Unfortunately, he was wrong; nevertheless, he made notes on the symptoms he experienced almost to the end. D.S. Chapman stated eight serious human envenomations by boomslangs occurred between 1919 and 1962, two of which were fatal.
The South African Vaccine Producers manufactures a monovalent antivenom for use in boomslang envenomations. The monovalent antivenom was first developed during the 40’s. Treatment of bites may also require total blood transfusions, especially after 24 to 48 hours without antivenom.
The boomslang is a timid snake, and bites generally occur only when people attempt to handle, catch, or kill the animal. When confronted and cornered, they inflate their necks and assume their striking “S”-shaped pose. The above data suggest boomslangs are unlikely to be a significant source of human fatalities throughout their distribution range.
Common Night adder Causus rhombeatus (Rhombic Night adder ) Nagadder [Afrikaans];iNyoka yasebusuku [Zulu]; Unomofuthwana [Xhosa]; Changwa [Ndebele]; Chiva [Shona].
common night adder readmore >>>
These snakes are fairly stout, never growing to more than 1 m (3.3 ft) in total length.
As opposed to most vipers, where the head is distinct from the neck and covered with small scales, in Causus the head is only slightly distinct from the neck and covered with 9 large, symmetrical head shields. Also, the eyes have round pupils instead of elliptical ones like other vipers. The rostral scale is broad, sometimes pointed or upturned. The nostril is located between two nasals and an internasal. The frontal and supraocular scales are long. A loreal scale is present, separating the nasal and preoculars. The suboculars are separated from the supralabials. The mandible has splenial and angular elements.
The fangs are different, too. Unlike other vipers, no hinge action occurs where the prefrontal bone engages the frontal. However, since the maxillary bones rotate almost as far, the fangs can still be erected. The fangs themselves are relatively short. A fine line, or suture, is also present along the length of the fang, representing the vestigial edge where the groove lips meet (from incomplete fang canal closure).
The body is cylindrical or slightly depressed and moderately slender. The dorsal scales are smooth or weakly keeled with apical pits. The ventral scales are rounded, and the anal plate is single. The tail is short, and the subcaudals can be either single or paired.
Among the viperids, another unique characteristic of this genus is several species have venom glands that are not confined to the temporal area as with most vipers, but are exceptionally long and extend well down the neck. These venom glands, located on either side of the spine, may be up to 10 cm in length, with long ducts connecting them to the fangs.
Other internal differences also set the Causinae apart: they have unusually long kidneys, a well-developed tracheal lung with two tracheal arteries, and the liver overlaps the tip of the heart
Despite their common name, this genus is active during the day, as well as at night. When disturbed, they will engage in a ferocious hissing and puffing threat display. They may lift the first part of their bodies off the ground in a coil and make a powerful swiping strike; juveniles have been known to come off the ground. Others specimens may raise the first part of their bodies off the ground, flattening their necks and moving forward, tongue extended, like a small cobra. The rather frantic strikes are often combined with attempts to quickly glide away
Their diet consists almost exclusively of toads and frogs. Gluttony has been reported; when prey is abundant, they may eat until they are literally unable to swallow any more food.
All Causus species lay eggs (oviparous), which among vipers is considered to be a more primitive trait, though not unique. The average clutch consists of some two dozen eggs that require an incubation period of about four months. Hatchlings are 4-5 in (10-12.5 cm) in total length (body + tail).
They are best kept in dry and well-ventilated cages that include places to hide, fresh water, and a basking spot slightly warmer than the rest of the cage (26 to 27°C). They will accept killed mice as food, but as they are voracious feeders, care must be taken to prevent obesity by overfeeding.
In spite of their enormously developed venom glands, night adders do not always use them to subdue their prey. The venom would act fast enough, but often they simply seize and swallow their prey, instead.
Causus venom is weak and tends only to dribble from the fangs, so relatively little is ever injected. Envenomation normally causes only local pain and swelling. Antivenin treatment should not be necessary. Nevertheless, South African polyvalent serum is known to be effective against the venom of at least two species.
No recent deaths have been reported due to this species. Earlier reports of fatalities were based on anecdotal evidence; the species involved likely were not properly identified or the cases were grossly mismanaged >>>>Night Adder
Mozambique spitting cobra Naja mossambica Mosambiekse spoegkobra, Spuugslang [Afrikaans]; iPhimpi [Xhosa]; imFezi [Zulu]; iPhimpi [Ndebele]; Kake [Tswana]; Phakhuphakhu [Venda].
Black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Black mamba, Southern brown mamba) Swart mamba [Afrikaans]; iMamba [Xhosa]; iMamba ennyama [Zulu & Ndebele]; Mokopa [Tswana & North Sotho]; Khangala [Venda]; Hangara [Shona]
Mozambique spitting cobra lees verder >>>
In color the snake is slate to olive grey, olive or tawny black above, with some or all scales black-edging. Below, salmon pink to purple yellowish, with black bars across the neck and ventrals speckled or edged with brown or black; young specimens sometimes have pink or yellow bars on the throat.
The average length of adults is between 90 cm – 105 cm (3-3½ feet), but largest specimen actually measured was a male 154 cm (5 feet) long. (Durban, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa]) This species is the most common cobra of the savanna regions of the tropical and subtropical Africa. The distribution includes Natal, as far south as Durban, Mpumalanga Province Lowveld region, south-eastern Tanzania and Pemba Island and west to southern Angola and northern Namibia. Younger specimens are much more frequently encountered in the open at daytime. Unlike the Egyptian Cobra, this species prefers localities near water, to which it will readily take when disturbed It is considered one of the most dangerous snakes in Africa. Like the Rinkhals, it can spit its venom. Its bite causes severe local tissue destruction (similar to that of the puff adder). Venom to the eyes can also cause impaired vision or blindness.
This cobra’s diet mainly consists of amphibians, other snakes, birds, eggs, small mammals, and even insects occasionally.
This snake is nervous and highly strung. When confronted at close quarters this snake can rear up to as much as two-thirds of its length, spread its long narrow hood and will readily “spit” in defense, usually from a reared-up position. By doing this the venom can be ejected at a distance of 2–3 metres (6½-10 feet), with remarkable accuracy. The spitting cobra does bite depending on its environment and the situation it is in, and also shares the same habit with the Rinkhals of feigning death to avoid further molestation.
When in a confined area like a tube the reptile will bite instead of spit.
The eggs average 10 to 22 in number, hatchlings measure 230-250mm.
>>> Mozambique spitting cobra
BLACK MAMBA lees verder >>>
It takes its common name not from the colour of its scales, but from the interior of its mouth, which is inky-black. It is the longest species of venomous snake on the African continent, with a length typically ranging from 2 meters (6.6 ft) to 3 meters (9.8 ft) and up to 4.3 to 4.5 meters (14.1 to 14.8 ft). It is among the fastest moving snakes in the world, capable of moving at 11 km/h (6.8 mph) over short distances.
Black mambas breed annually and mating occurs in the early spring. Females lay eggs which gestate over 80 to 90 days before hatching. Juvenile black mambas are lighter in colour than adults and darken with age. Although mambas are typically tree-dwelling snakes, the black mamba is only occasionally arboreal, preferring to build lairs in terrestrialhabitats. The black mamba is found across a range of terrain from savannah, woodlands, rocky slopes and dense forests. It is diurnal and chiefly an ambush predator, known to prey on hyrax, bushbabies and other small mammals. Adult black mambas have few predators in the wild.
The venom of the black mamba is highly toxic, potentially causing collapse in humans within 45 minutes or less. Without effective antivenom therapy, death typically occurs in 7–15 hours. The venom is chiefly composed of neurotoxins, specifically dendrotoxin. The black mamba is capable of striking at considerable range and occasionally may deliver a series of bites in rapid succession. Despite its reputation for being highly aggressive, like most snakes, it usually attempts to flee from humans unless threatened or cornered.
. >>>> BLACK MAMBA
Twig snake Thelotornis capensis capensis (Southern vine snake, Bird snake) Savannevoelslang [Afrikaans]; Kotikoti [Ndebele]; Ukhokhothi [Zulu]
Twig snake lees verder >>>
Can be identified by a long pointed head, a distinctive keyhole shaped pupil, a dull grey or grey brown colouration (often with dark blotches), a green or green blue head, a dark line running between the eye and mouth, and its red and black tongue. It can also be recognized by the way its neck when threatened. This snake reaches an average length of 1.2 meters but may also reach just under 1.5 meters.
Distribution and habitat
The Southern Vine snake is found in the following areas of southern Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West province, Swaziland, southern Zimbabwe and eastern Botswana. Its favoured habitat is lowland forest and moist savanna.
Feeds on lizards (including chameleons), frogs and occasionally birds and other snakes.
Predators, parasites and disease
Fed on by birds of prey (particularly secretary birds and snake eagles) and other snakes.
Oviparous (egg laying), laying between 4 and 18 eggs in summer and is known to produce more than one clutch per season.
Has an average lifespan of 10 years.
This Vine snake species has potentially lethal haemotoxic venom, A bite from this snake constitutes a medical emergency especially since no antivenom is available. Luckily it is seldom encountered and deaths are exceptionally rare.
Puff adder Bitis arietans Poffadder [Afrikaans]; iBululu [Xhosa / Zulu / Ndebele];iRambi [Xhosa]iHobosha [Zulu]; Lerabe, Marabe, Thamaha, Thama-dinkotsane[South Sotho]; Lebolobolo [Tswana & North Sotho]; Vuluvulu [Venda]; Chiva [Shona];Mhiri [Tsonga]
Alarmnummer voor informatie over Snake Bites enz.
Puff adderlees verder >>>
This thick, heavily built snake has a large, flattened, triangular head and large nostrils which point vertically upwards. The body is yellow-brown to light brown, with black, pale-edged chevrons on the back and bars on the tail.
Throughout the subcontinent, north through the whole of Africa to Southern Arabia.
Blyde River Canyon
Large litters, usually consisting of 20 – 40 young are born in late summer.
Rodents, sometimes birds and even other snakes.
The Puff Adder is responsible for more bites and fatalities in Africa than any other snake due to its habit of not moving away from approaching footsteps, instead blowing out air as a warning, hence the name.
>>>> Puff adder
A few quick facts and tips on snakes and snakebite
Alarmnummer en info slangenbeet lees verder >>>
I have confirmed with the Tygerberg Hospital the existence of a 24 h telephone number where one can get assistance and information on virtually all emergency cases of envenomation by either snakes, bees and wasps, spiders and scorpions. I thought this might be valuable for our colleagues out on the reserves and in the rural areas, or those who cannot always get to a doctor or hospital quickly (or those of us who live in the “urban jungle”).
The number to dial is : 021-931 6129.
PROTOCOL snake byte do not go into panick! it course stress and high bloodpresure,
LEES HIER >>>
- Although more than half of the 151 species of snake found in South Africa have fangs and could technically be classified as venomous, only 16 species carry venom which is considered potent enough to be life-threatening. These include the boomslang, vine snakes, coral shield cobra, six species of cobra, the rinkhals, the green and black mambas, the puff adder, the Gaboon adder and the berg adder.
- There are probably fewer than 10 snakebite deaths per year in South Africa and your chances of being killed in a car accident is much, much higher.
- If a snakebite is suspected, try and note the kind of snake that bit the patient, bearing in mind the venom of Cape cobras, puff adders and boomslang act differently.
- Do not try and catch the snake as this may put you in further danger – an angry 2 m long Cape cobra is a difficult customer!!
- Try to keep the patient calm and offer reassurance.
- Transport the patient to hospital as quickly as possible. Generally its much better to get the patient to hospital, than to apply other first aid measures.
- If the snake is long and slender, for example a Cape cobra or boomslang, apply a pressure bandage to the bitten limb. Apply the bandage from the hand or foot towards the body trunk. The bandage should be as tight as for a sprained ankle or wrist.
- Ensure that the patient is as inactive as possible: activity speeds up the transport of venom.
- Elevate the bite site to reduce blood flow to and from the bite site.
- If the patient has difficulty breathing, you may have to administer “mouth to mouth” resuscitation. Remember the ABC? Airway (open), breathing (mouth to mouth) and circulation (heart massage, if necessary).
- If the patient was spat in the eyes by a spitting cobra, rinkhals or any other spitter, wash the infected eye(s) with copious amounts of water. Do not rub the eyes! Yes, you may use milk or urine in an emergency, but there’s little or no evidence that this works better than water.
- Do not use anti-snakebite serum if you are not trained to administer it – the patient may go into prophylactic shock and die (of the anti-venom and not the snakebite).
- Do not cut the wound to bleed out the venom or suck on it – this does not work!
- Do not apply a tourniquet – oxygen starvation of the limb can cause more damage.
- Do not allow the patient to consume any alcohol – this speeds up metabolism. Vergeet die dop!
- Do not attempt any form of electric shock therapy.
- Be careful where you place your hands when moving objects, such as tree trunks, rocks, or equipment around. Always lift slabs of rock and other flat objects in the veld, AWAY from you.
- When hiking, wear long trousers and boots and watch where you put your feet – rather step on to and not over objects.
- Finally, please be kind to snakes, they fulfil a very important ecological role in nature and they are rather cool animals!!
If possible, take these steps while waiting for medical help:
- Remain calm and move beyond the snake’s striking distance.
- Remove jewelry and tight clothing before you start to swell.
- Position yourself, if possible, so that the bite is at or below the level of your heart.
- Clean the wound, but don’t flush it with water. Cover it with a clean, dry dressing.
- Don’t use a tourniquet or apply ice.
- Don’t cut the wound or attempt to remove the venom.
- Don’t drink caffeine or alcohol, which could speed the rate at which your body absorbs venom.
- Don’t try to capture the snake. Try to remember its color and shape so that you can describe it, which will help in your treatment.
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